Un Centro de Recursos para el Aprendizaje, la Investigación e Innovación - CRAI - es un entorno dinámico y flexible gestionado por profesionales cualificados y polivalentes en el que se integran todos los servicios y recursos -presenciales y virtuales- que dan soporte al aprendizaje y la investigación como respuesta a los cambios que suponen la renovación pedagógica - de la docencia al aprendizaje -, las nuevas tecnologías, la calidad en los servicios, la investigación y la innovación.

El CRAI tiene como misión proporcionar un servicio Excelente a nuestros usuarios/clientes, como agente activo en los procesos de aprendizaje, investigación e innovación, mediante la gestión integral de recursos y servicios de información para satisfacer sus necesidades, contribuyendo así a la consecución de los objetivos de la Universidad.

Clase de Criminología en la Biblioteca CRAI Dulce Chacón Campus Alcobendas 

 

Últimas publicaciones sobre metodología y tendencias aplicadas a la educación

 

Damián, J. (2015). Professional identity, social recognition and entering the workforce of the university student with hybrid education. Propósitos y Representaciones: Revista de Psicología Educativa de la USIL, 2(2), 45 – 76.

Abstract: This article shows progress of a research which aims to describe the factors that facilitate and hinder labor insertion of graduates with hybrid university education, since according to those responsible for the education policy, this type of training facilitates graduates to enter in the labor market. Through a qualitative approach we studied the graduates from the Business Sciences Degree Program from an Oaxaca public university, since it mixes three traditional careers causing a hybrid university program. Preliminary results point out two factors that limit the labor insertion of graduates, the lack of professional identity in the graduates, discouraging them to carry out actions that promote their insertion, and the lack of social recognition of the profession by employers for which reason graduates are not required in the local labor market; contradicting both situations -at least in the case study, the alleged advantages attributed to hybrid university courses.

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Farmer, T. A. (2010). Leading Leadership Preparation: 21st Century Designs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Education Research Association (Lafayette, LA, March 5, 2010).

Abstract: As political accountability and economic reality increasingly influence higher education, many leadership preparation programs are seeking cost effective instructional delivery systems that yield highly effective results. Simultaneously, large numbers of graduate students are seeking quality leadership preparation programs that provide both learning flexibility and convenience at a reasonable price. Asynchronous online courses provide students with schedule flexibility, decreased travel expenses and decreased travel time commitments. These online courses are particularly attractive to working professionals, students with parental responsibilities and students residing in remote geographic areas. In response to market demand, many leadership preparation programs have turned to hybrid courses, online courses or fully online programs. Coupled with these phenomena are seasoned leadership faculty members who can be thoroughly entrenched in traditional instructional methodologies. The development of a critical mass of faculty with the capacity to overcome the organizational barriers to change is fundamental to the successful integration of online components into leadership preparation programs is. How can leadership preparation programs most effectively integrate online learning activities and enhance program vitality without sacrificing program quality? This paper attempts to provide a partial answer to that question through a synopsis of the research regarding online learning and leadership preparation programs.

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Griffiths, R., Chingos, M., Mulhern, C., & Spies, R. (2014). Interactive Online Learning on Campus: Testing MOOCs and Other Platforms in Hybrid Formats in the University System of Maryland. Ithaka S+R.

Abstract: Online learning technologies show promise for educating more people in innovative ways that can lower costs for universities and colleges. This study represents the latest of Ithaka S+R’s efforts to examine the “what” and the “how” of adopting these technologies in universities and colleges—what impact does their use have on learning outcomes and costs of delivering undergraduate instruction, and, if these technologies are shown to be effective, how can their use be accelerated and scaled up across institutions in strategic ways? A key objective of this study was to learn how faculty can take advantage of existing online content—sometimes created by professors at other institutions—to redesign their courses and benefit their students, and whether efficiencies can be created in this process.

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Ingalls, V. (2014). Hybrid classrooms: Switchers and stayers. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 1(2), 76-85.

Abstract: This mixed methods case study compiled the qualitative and quantitative grade results of 18 students enrolled in a hybrid statistics course that were given the option to switch mid-semester from hybrid to traditional seated classrooms with the same content, text, syllabus, and instructor.   Qualitative items such as rationale for switching classes and overall satisfaction for “stayers” and “switchers” were compared.  Quantitatively, the groups began with statistically significant differences and medium to large effect sizes in midterm exam grades (p < .01, d = 2.66), first project grades (p < .01, d = .608), and course grades (p < .001, d = 2.21).  After switching, the projects, exams, and course grades were no longer statistically different.   No differences were found in the two groups’ time spent online and progress on relevant objectives, further isolating the treatment variable.   Despite the improvements and relevant effect sizes, the results only focused on six switching students.   More questions must be asked of larger and broader populations before generalizations may be drawn.

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Johnson, L., Becker, S., Estrada, V. & Freeman, A. (2014). Horizon Report: 2014 Higher Education. Austin, TX: New Media Consortium.

Abstract: The NMC Horizon Report > 2014 Higher Education Edition is a collaborative effort between the NMC and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI), an EDUCAUSE Program. This eleventh edition describes annual findings from the NMC Horizon Project, an ongoing research project designed to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have an impact on learning, teaching, and creative inquiry in education. Six key trends, six significant challenges, and six emerging technologies are identified across three adoption horizons over the next one to five years, giving campus leaders and practitioners a valuable guide for strategic technology planning. The format of the report is new this year, providing these leaders with more in-depth insight into how the trends and challenges are accelerating and impeding the adoption of educational technology, along with their implications for policy, leadership and practice.

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Jovanovic, A., Jankovic, A., Jovanovic, S. M., Peric, V., Vitosevic, B., & Pavlovic, M. (2015). When going hybrid is not enough: Statistical analysis of effectiveness of blended courses piloted within Tempus BLATT Project. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 11(2), 138.

Abstract: The paper describes the delivery of the courses in the framework of the project implementation and presents the effect the change in the methodology had on student performance as measured by final grade. Methodology: University of Pristina piloted blended courses in 2013 under the framework of the Tempus BLATT project. The blended learning approach was tackled through a supplemental model where online component was added to unreduced seat time of the courses. A total of 791 students were observed. Student performance and attainment of learning objectives in traditional vs. blended courses were compared. Notwithstanding the improved students' performance in some of the courses, the overall grades were not significantly higher with the introduction of blended approach (p>0.05). Despite the divergence from the Gaussian curve, showing the prevailing low grades, teachers tend to estimate the attainment of the learning objectives favorable. The differences between final grades and learning objectives score ranks were highly significant.

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Mills, J. (2015). A Conceptual Framework for Teaching Statistics from a Distance. Journal of Effective Teaching, 15(1), 59-68.

Abstract: This article discusses important considerations for teachers who teach or may be thinking about teaching statistics online or in a hybrid/blended format. Suggestions from previous research and practical teaching experiences are examined. Moreover, the latest recommendations from the literature are considered in the context of teaching from a distance, which includes the 2014 curriculum guidelines published by the American Statistical As-sociation (ASA Curriculum Undergraduate Guidelines Workgroup, 2014) and the Guide-lines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) College Report (2005; 2012). The paper concludes with suggestions about essential next steps to further advance our understanding of teaching and learning in this environment.

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Morgan, K. M., Polush, E. Y., Cain, R., & Shue, C. K. (2014, September). Use of Critical Incident Posts (CIP) in the Graduate-Level Hybrid Classroom: Impact on Communication and the Community Learning Environment. In 33rd National Research-to-Practice (R2P) Conference in Adult and Higher Education together with 2nd Annual Ball State University Adult, Higher.

Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the potential impact of the Critical Incident Post (CIP)—adapted from Brookfield’s (1995) Critical Incident Questionnaires (CIQ)—on communication and the learning environment within the graduate-level hybrid course at a public university. This study drew upon the constructionism theoretical perspective, using both individual and collective narratives in its methodology. The emphasis of this study was on students’ reflections on their experiences with CIPs as they engaged in learning and interactions within the graduate-level hybrid course. The study employed multi-method (qualitative) design. Finally, student-participants stated that CIPs enabled them to understand their classmates’ perspectives better, which, in turn, contributed to experiencing the learning environment as open and accessible.

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Nava, S. (2015). The hybrid model and student learning experiences: Sacramento: California State University.

Abstract: Higher education has integrated many new technologies into its courses. 'the hybrid model takes full advantage of technological advances with the incorporation of learning technologies used during online interactions combined with in-person instruction (Brunner, 2006). As more institutions of higher education continue to adopt the hybrid model. learning technologies wiII play a larger role in the learning process of students (Snart 201 0). Thus, understanding how these technologies impact student learning experiences becomes vital to ensuring quality education within the hybrid setting. The hybrid model allows information to be transmitted through the use of both face-to-face and online platforms or interactions, which alter how students receive and learn this information. Hybrid courses also transfer student-instructor interactions online and reduce those held in-person. Therefore, it is the purpose of this study to explore the effects of the hybrid model on the learning experiences of students enrolled in a hybrid master’s program.

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Siemens, G., & DawSon, S. (2015). Preparing for the Digital University: a review of the history and current state of distance, blended, and online learning. 

Abstract: Higher education is changing. Central to this change is the transition from a physically based learning model to one that makes greater use of digital technologies. A brave, new landscape of toolsets is now emerging, each with various elements of control, integration, ownership, and structure. As leaders, educators, and students begin selecting tools for enterprise deployment, questions of control and ownership become as important as questions of integration and structure. More importantly, the technologies selected will determine the quality of learning, the scope of teaching practices, and ultimately, how well learners are equipped for both employment and engagement in democratic and equitable models of modern global society.

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Struble, K. D. (2014). Efficacy of hybrid coursework on retention rates in online higher education. Liberty University.

Abstract: Recent developments and technological advances in online education have provided the adult learner with new opportunities to obtain a college education. However, online coursework offers new challenges particularly for online student retention, as these rates are lower than traditional students on a college or university campus. The following research outlines a quantitative study for the perceived effect of social learning for adult online learners through hybrid coursework on undergraduate retention rates through two research questions using a causal-comparative design for research question one and a correlational design for research question two. This study examined retention theory in regards to social learning by comparing the participation of adult online learners who enrolled in a blended online and on-campus hybrid course to those who solely took online courses. It also studied the relationship between number of hybrid courses taken by online students and retention.

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Trentin, G. and Bocconi. S. (2014). The Effectiveness of Hybrid Solutions in Higher Education: A Call for Hybrid-Teaching Instructional Design. Educational Technology, 54(5), 12-21.

Abstract: In order to design learning solutions that effectively embed face-to-face and online dimensions, it is crucial to identify the key components underpinning hybrid solutions. Furthermore, once these components have been identified, there is the need to clarify how to recombine them to meet a specific learning objective. The paper aims to highlight the role of network and mobile technologies (NMTs)1 in enhancing the particular characteristics of hybrid solutions (HS) with a view to (a) potentiating/enriching the teaching/learning processes, (b) exploiting the varied opportunities it offers for their observability, and hence for their monitoring addressed to formative and summative assessment. The article will emphasize how this potential can only be captured by solidly integrating the process of teaching/learning design with that of monitoring and assessment.

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VanPortfliet, P., & Anderson, M. (2013). Moving from Online to Hybrid Course Delivery: Increasing Positive Student Outcomes. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching, 6(1).

Abstract: The present study compared student outcomes of a school psychology action research course delivered in online and hybrid instructional formats. Participants (N = 30) were enrolled in one of three consecutive course offerings. Student outcome was defined as the final course grade that students achieved, with positive student outcomes characterized by earning a passing grade of “In Progress” at the end of the course. Descriptive statistics analysis of student outcomes indicated that hybrid-format instruction facilitated positive outcomes at a rate 14% higher than online-only instruction. These results lend support to the utilization of hybrid instructional strategies by university educators.

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Waldman, J., & Smith, C. E. (2013). Hybrid Learning in a Canadian College Environment. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

Abstract: A great deal of research has been conducted and published on the topic of hybrid or “blended” learning in university settings, but relatively little has been conducted within the college environment. The purpose of this multi-method study was to identify the impact of hybrid course delivery methods on student success and course withdrawal rates, and to evaluate faculty and student experience of hybrid instruction from within the Canadian college environment.

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Barker, J. (2015). Benefits of Hybrid Classes in Community Colleges. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), 8(3), 143-146.

Abstract: This article discusses hybrid courses and their impact on educational facilities, their students, and instructors. Instructors now have over ten years of data related to hybrid courses and by trial and error have devised different strategies to plan and execute lesson plans via partly online forums. Programs are in place that give students the opportunity to excel; these types of courses promote a unique balance of guidance by the instructor and acceptance of responsibility by the students. Students have responded in a positive manner in pursuing these types of courses.

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Chumbley II, S. (2015). Hybrid CTE Dual Enrollment: An Innovative Approach to Education. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 90(4), 28-32.

Abstract: The article focuses on Career and Technical Education (CTE) dual enrollment programs in the U.S. which allow high school students to earn college credits in order to develop vocational readiness and promote college degree acceleration and attainment. Topics discussed include the benefits of dual enrollment courses provided by Eastern New Mexico University, the online and in-class hybrid model of courses offered, and student success.

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Fernández-Pascual, M. D., Ferrer-Cascales, R., Reig-Ferrer, A., Albaladejo-Blázquez, N., & Walker, S. L. (2015). Validation of a Spanish version of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) in Spain. Learning Environments Research, 18(2), 179-196.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the Spanish version of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (Sp-DELES). This instrument assesses students’ perceptions of virtual learning environments using six scales: Instructor Support, Student Interaction and Collaboration, Personal Relevance, Authentic Learning, Active Learning, and Autonomy. Further, the Sp-DELES includes an additional scale that assesses students’ Satisfaction with their classes. The original DELES has been used in at least 27 independent studies with strong reliability and validity. For this study, we sampled 265 students from the University of Alicante enrolled in various hybrid and distance education courses taught by the Department of Health Psychology. We analysed the Sp-DELES for validity using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation, and for reliability using Cronbach’s alpha. The Sp-DELES exhibited good reliability (Cronbach’s alpha for the scales ranging from 0.86 to 0.97) and the original six-factor structure was replicated and accounted for 72.9 % of the total variance. Overall the results are consistent with those of the original English-language version of the instrument. The Sp-DELES has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing psychosocial learning environments in tertiary-level hybrid and distance-education settings.

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Hall, S., & Villareal, D. (2015). The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses. Executive Editors, 27(1), 69-80.

Abstract: Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-to-face classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of graduate students about the instructional activities of hybrid courses that motivated them and enhanced their understanding of course content. The perspectives of the students were obtained through an online survey and a focus group. The findings of the study describe the experiences of the students in hybrid courses and their suggestions to enhance the online and face-to-face components. Four overarching themes emerged from the data: organization and flexibility, online activities, interactive classes, and balance. The findings may be used to inform the planning and effective sequencing of online and face-to-face components of graduate level hybrid courses.

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Llargués, E., Herranz, X., Sánchez, L., Calbo, E., & Virumbrales, M. (2015). Aplicación de un modelo híbrido de aprendizaje basado en problemas como estrategia de evaluación e interrelación 'multiasignaturas'. FEM: Revista de la Fundación Educación Médica, 18(2), 131-137.

Abstract: A 'hybrid' model of problem-based learning (PBL) was designed and implemented as a teaching strategy, assessment and means to integrate knowledge related to the subjects 'Physiopathogenesis' and 'Semiotics' of Medicine in the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. The hybrid model was designed within the e-learning platform, Moodle, which facilitates the development of PBL methodology but with fewer resources. PBL functions as an integrative activity which seeks to promote development of generic skills and complex thought in an active learning environment. PBL encourages students to construct their own knowledge for the development of skills such as clinical reasoning and decision-making, while enabling the integration of knowledge from different subjects. The outcomes of this project indicate a high degree of student satisfaction with this PBL-based methodology as has been manifested by the achievement of active participation in the teaching-learning process.

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McNeal Jr, R. B. (2015). Institutional Environment (s) for Online Course Development and Delivery. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(1), 46-54.

Abstract: There is a lot we know about online courses, but a lot is yet to be discovered. We know quite a bit about how to develop these courses, as well as how to deliver them. We know quite a bit about assuring the quality of these courses, and how to assess student performance. We know quite a bit about how to "incentivize" faculty to develop these courses, and about their equivalence to hybrid and traditional classroom-based courses. What we do not know, and what Sociology can contribute to the discussion, is how the institutional environment affect's individual faculty member's propensity and ability to develop and deliver online courses. This manuscript attempts to tackle these issues and discusses nine different elements that affect the development and delivery of these courses including the technological/teaching context, the political environment, faculty and administrative resistance, competing agendas, course ownership, resources, specialists and technology, and the human touch. Each of these areas is discussed in the article then linked to an individual case study at a large research University in the Northeastern United States.

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Marcos, T. A., & Loose, W. V. (2015). iPrincipals: Innovative Themes, Strategies, and Recommendations of Ten Online University Educational Leadership Programs. Noni Mendoza Reis, San Jose State University Gilberto Arriaza, California State University, East Bay Albert Jones, California State University, Los Angeles, 39.

Abstract: This report provides comparative empirical data on current state and national university trends around the thematic strategies and constructs ten fully online Educational Leadership programs engage within their innovative designs. Our 2014 iPrincipals report provided information on how one California University transitioned their fully onground program to both a hybrid model, and subsequently to a fully online delivery, in their preparation of school leadership candidates. Current findings, presented within this report, reflect the broader state and national perspectives of Educational Leadership program faculty, and administrators, in their preparation of iPrincipals.

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Vidal, F. (2015). Hybrid Innovation. Bized, 14(4), 54-55.

Abstract: The article discusses the need of adopting circular hybridization by working at the intersection of innovation, entrepreneurship, and science, by business schools for preparing students. Topics discussed include inclusion of non-management subjects in the curricula, launch of management-architecture double degree by Audencia Nantes School of Management, France; enhancing the organizational behavioral skills of managers.

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Xin, H., Kempland, M., & Blankson, F. H. (2015). Adaptability and Replicability of Web-Facilitated, Hybrid, and Online Learning in an Undergraduate Exercise Psychology Course. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 14(1), 19-30.

Abstract: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of web-facilitated, hybrid, and online learning modalities among undergraduate students in a public institution so as to determine the adaptability and replicability of these three learning modalities. This is a quasi-experimental study. A total of 103 undergraduate exercise science majors participated in the study. Students’ learning outcomes were measured by mid-term exams, final exams, online journal entries, final course grades, and other in-class and online assignments, and compared among the web facilitated, hybrid, and online course sections. The differences of the means of the three sections of the final exam, final course grade, and final letter grade were statistically significant. The mean scores of the final exam of the web-facilitated section were significantly higher than the means of both the hybrid and online sections. The means of the final course grade and final letter grade of the web-facilitated section were significantly higher than the means of the online section. Approximately 82.1% of the students in the web-facilitated section earned extra credits compared to about 37.5% of the students in the online section. Web-facilitated learning proved more desirable among undergraduate students than the other two modalities; hybrid learning, however, can serve as a viable alternative.

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Alkhasawneh, R. , & Hargraves, R.H.(2015). Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations & Research, 15(3), 35-42

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about student needs, how to support student academic success, and how to increase retention in STEM fields. Institutions can also rely on using qualitative analysis to examine students' experiences during the freshman year to acquire useful information on different student retention behaviors from a diverse population. Based on this information, better programs and student services can be developed.

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Barros Martins, L., & Zerbini, T. (2014). Escala de Estratégias de Aprendizagem: evidências de validade em contexto universitário híbrido. Psico-USF, 19(2), 317-328.

Abstract: Instruments to identify and measure learning strategies used by students in distance and hybrid courses are very important, considering the expansion of e-learning. The objective was to adapt and verify the evidences of validity of an instrument of learning strategies in higher education institutions. Students of a private university in the state of São Paulo who were enrolled in blended learning disciplines participated of this study, in person or remotely. Exploratory factor and internal consistency analisys were conducted. The scale has four factors: cognitive strategies (15 items, α=0.90), emotion control (4 items, α=0.77), self-regulatory strategies (7items, α= 0.86) and interpersonal help seeking (3 items, α=0.68). This structure differs empirically from those found in others studies with the scale. Future research should use it in different contexts and samples, especially in a 100% distance higher education course.

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Coates, H., & Mahat, M. (2014). Threshold quality parameters in hybrid higher education. Higher Education, 68(4), 577-590. doi:10.1007/s10734-014-9729-x

Abstract: Quality assurance conventions are being challenged by emerging business scenarios with alluring economies. This paper analyses shaping contexts, resulting hybridized forms of higher education, and consequences for quality assurance. It devotes sustained attention to unpacking what, as a result of contemporary reconfigurations, would appear to be pressing current change/differentiation frontiers—engineering an engaged learning experience, and authenticating learning outcomes. These parameters are analysed, with consideration of development options. The paper concludes by emphasising the consequent and urgent imperatives for workforce development.

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Cole, M. T., Shelley, D. J., & Swartz, L. B. (2014). Online instruction, e-learning, and student satisfaction: A three year study. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(6).

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a three-year study of graduate and undergraduate students’ level of satisfaction with online instruction at one university. The study expands on earlier research into student satisfaction with e-learning. Researchers conducted a series of surveys over eight academic terms. Five hundred and fifty-three students participated in the study. Responses were consistent throughout, although there were some differences noted in the level of student satisfaction with their experience. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of satisfaction based on gender, age, or level of study. Overall, students rated their online instruction as moderately satisfactory, with hybrid or partially online courses rated as somewhat more satisfactory than fully online courses.

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 Hamza-Lup, F. G., & White, S. (2015). Hybrid Course Delivery: Impact on Learning and Assessment. In: eLmL 2015 The Seventh International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning, 22-27 February 2015, Lisbon, Portugal.

Abstract: Technology is influencing education, blurring the boundaries of delivery modes. A combination between online and traditional teaching style, the hybrid/blended course, may

present a solution with many benefits. This paper provides definitions of the different delivery approaches, and then evaluates four years of data from a course that has been converted from traditional face-to-face delivery, to a hybrid system. It is determined that the revised course, in hybrid delivery mode, is at least as good, if not better, than it previously was.

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 Triventi, M. (2014). Higher education regimes: an empirical classification of higher education systems and its relationship with student accessibility. Quality & Quantity, 48(3), 1685-1703.

Abstract: This article proposes a multidimensional empirical classification of higher education systems on the basis of several institutional characteristics, which are likely to affect student participation and social inequality (tracking, expenditures, structural differentiation, institutional autonomy and accountability, affordability for students, graduates’ occupational returns). We develop a theoretical framework in which higher education systems are related to four main institutional domains: school system, State, labour market, students and their families. In the second part, an empirical analysis of the institutional profiles of higher education systems of 16 Oecd countries is performed. An empirical classification of higher education systems is elaborated applying hierarchical cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling on macro-indicators.

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 Aly, I. (2013). Performance in an Online Introductory Course in a Hybrid Classroom Setting. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 43(2), 85-99.

Abstract: This study compared the academic achievement between undergraduate students taking an introductory managerial accounting course online (N = 104) and students who took the same course in a hybrid classroom setting (N = 203). Student achievement was measured using scores from twelve weekly online assignments, two major online assignments, a final examination held on campus, and overall course performance. This study found that students receiving only online instruction were as successful as students receiving hybrid classroom instruction. These findings suggest that course instruction and pedagogy are more important for student learning than the type of media delivery, and online instructors should focus their effort on quality in developing "online courses."

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Borgobello, Ana (2013). Cambios en las percepciones de estudiantes universitarios a partir de una mayor hibridación entre el aula tradicional y virtual. V Congreso Internacional de Investigación y Práctica Profesional en Psicología XX Jornadas de Investigación Noveno Encuentro de Investigadores en Psicología del MERCOSUR. Facultad de Psicología - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires.

 Abstract: La enseñanza con entornos web es una práctica de cada vez más frecuencia en combinación con las clases tradicionales cara-a-cara. En este trabajo se analizan los resultados de cuestionarios de opinión aplicados a estudiantes de dos grupos de una materia de nivel universitario. Los dos casos analizados cursaron la materia en 2010 y 2011 respectivamente, tuvieron los mismos docentes en teóricos y prácticos, idéntico horario de cursado, cargas horarias y de trabajos tanto presenciales como a través de la plataforma virtual. El cambio observado fue la incorporación de un docente en el segundo caso analizado al uso de la plataforma, es decir, en el primer año trabajó sólo un docente online mientras que en el segundo lo hicieron dos.

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Breslauer, G. W. (2013). UC Berkeley's Adaptations to the Crisis of Public Higher Education in the US: Privatization? Commercialization? or Hybridization? Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.17.13. Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2013.

Abstract: The University of California at Berkeley now delivers more to the public of California than it ever has, and it does this on the basis of proportionally less funding by the State government than it has ever received.  This claim may come as a surprise, since it is often said that Berkeley is in the process of privatizing, becoming less of a public university and more in the service of private interests.  To the contrary, as the State’s commitment to higher education and social-welfare programs has declined, UC Berkeley has struggled to preserve and even expand its public role, while struggling simultaneously to retain its competitive excellence as a research university. 

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Cakiroglu, U. (2013). Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 12(1), 161-177.

Abstract: In order to facilitate students’ understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students’ understanding in introductory programming A quasi-experimental design and one control group (CG, N =38) and one experimental group (EG, N = 38) were used. While the control group was taught in the traditional way, the experimental group received another instructional package which included the hybrid approach.

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 de la Varre, C., Keane, J., & Irvin, M. J. (2011). Enhancing online distance education in small rural US schools: a hybrid, learner-centred model. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(8).

Abstract: Online distance education (ODE) has become pervasive and can potentially transform pedagogical practices across primary, secondary and university-based educational systems. ODE is considered a flexible option for non-traditional students such as adult learners and home-schoolers, and a convenient way to deliver remedial courses. ODE is also a feasible and attractive option for rural schools, which educate 29% of all K-12 students in the United States, and often struggle to provide advanced courses and attract highly qualified teachers. This paper presents qualitative data from both cohorts of a two-year, randomised, controlled research study of online distance learners in US rural high schools.

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 Frimming, R. E., Bower, G. G., & Choi, C. (2013). Examination of a Physical Education Personal Health Science Course: Face-to-Face Classroom Compared to Online Hybrid Instruction. Physical Educator, 70(4), 359.

Abstract: Many studies have compared traditional face-to-face courses to online or distance education courses. The purpose of this study was to examine academic performance, perceptions, and experiences of participants enrolled in different academic learning environments. Pre and Post Content Knowledge Tests and a student evaluation were used to measure perceptions and experiences of participants. From the first result (perception), no significant difference (p > .05) was found between the two class formats in course evaluation, showing college students had similar perceptions regardless of class format. With the second result (experience), a significant difference (p =. 031 < .05) was found between the two class formats in self-evaluation, indicating participants in this study had better experiences from the traditional face-to-face class format.

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Jennings, G., & Peloso, J. M. (2010). The Underutilized Potential of the Hybrid Educator in Teacher Education. The New Educator, 6(2), 153-162.

Abstract: The hybrid educator is an essential contributor to the development of new public school teachers. A hybrid educator is a college adjunct professor employed full time by a public school system. The role of the hybrid educator involves the navigation of two separate systems in developing new teachers: the university and the public school. This requires working knowledge of the bureaucracies of dual systems in order to successfully interact in both. The hybrid educator is in the unique position of belonging to both institutions. The characteristics of hybrid educators will be identifi ed, examples of their boundary crossings presented, and recommendations to effectively utilize their talents will be offered.

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Osorio Gómez, L. A., & Duart, J. M. (2012). A hybrid approach to university subject learning activities. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), 259-271.

Abstract: In order to get a better understanding of subject design and delivery using a hybrid approach, we have studied a hybrid learning postgraduate programme offered by the University of the Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. The study analyses students’ perceptions of subject design and delivery, with particular reference to learning activities and the roles of lecturers and students during moments of interaction. Elements of socio-cultural activity theory were taken as a reference for subject analysis. It is a qualitative research project containing some quantitative data.

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 Pollock, K. E., & Winton, S. M. (2011). Hybrid courses and online policy dialogues: A transborder distance learning collaboration. The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(1), 7.

Abstract: This essay describes a blended (hybrid) course collaboration used to facilitate policy dialogues between graduate students at two institutions (one in Canada and the other in the US) as a way to teach about policy. The course content and design is informed by three trends in research and practice: increased policy borrowing across boundaries and jurisdictions; calls to democratize policy making in general and in education policy in particular; and developments in teaching and learning online. Drawing on students' informal feedback in combination with reflections on instructors' experiences, we suggest that policy dialogues are a promising strategy for promoting students' learning about education policy. We also illustrate how professors can use a hybrid course structure between two institutions.

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